how new york city gets its electricity - commercial energy storage systems
By EMILY S.
2017 this huge eccentric machine, which first delivered power in Manhattan before 135, is undergoing major changes.
When you turn on the lights or charge your phone, the electricity from the socket is likely to have been transmitted hundreds of miles through the grid covering most parts of North America --
The largest machine in the world is also one of the most eccentric machines.
Your home electricity may be generated by Niagara Falls, or it may be natural. gas-
Plant fires on a barge floating on the coast of Brooklyn.
An hour of production along the block may be more expensive than an hour of production on the Canadian border.
Also, in addition to the hottest days of the year, the surprising part of the system was idle, when the transmission lines entering the New York City area had reached the physical limit by bottleneck.
"We have an energy system --
It's inefficient because it's never designed to be efficient, "says Richard L.
Kaufman, so-and-so in the state
Known as the energy czar, he is leading a plan to reimagine the grid.
In the era of cloud computing, it's like a big computer.
Kaufman added that with climate change, the state must "rethink this fundamental architecture.
"But how does it work now?
A pile of black coal was dragged by horses in 1882.
New York power station Edison Electric Lighting Company in Pearl Street, Lower Manhattan, where there is "giant" steam
Power engine (named after P. T.
The elephant in Barnum)
These create electricity, reach homes and businesses within about 1 square mile, and illuminate the living room for the first time without a match.
A few years later, a hydropower station on the Niagara River used the design of Nikola Tesla and the equipment provided by George Westinghouse to help Buffalo become an industrial force.
Today, hundreds of privately owned power plants are generating electricity.
Each has different construction and operating costs, how much power, speed and efficiency can be generated.
Unlike other states that do not have access to such diverse resources, New York has a full menu of options.
Coal, the original fuel, is being exported.
The state has announced plans to close the remaining plants or convert them into cheap and abundant natural gas at the moment.
New York Independent System Operators said that in 2015, 64 factories using natural gas produced nearly half of the state's electricity, a non-profit organization that operates the state's power grid and electricity market.
About four of these nuclear power plants make up the third.
While dealing with nuclear waste remains a concern, the state wants to subsidize nuclear power plants in the north due to stable carbon emissions
They provide free electricity. But Gov. Andrew M.
Cuomo's recent decision to force the closure of Indian Point power plants in the suburbs of Westchester County has raised awareness of the state's ability to achieve its clean energy goals and how to make up for the energy provided by the plant.
In New York, there are 180 hydro facilities that produce 19% of the state's electricity, which is still critical to clean electricity production. By 2030, Mr.
Como wants half of the state's electricity to come from renewable sources produced here, or from places like Canada and New England.
According to the latest data, renewable energy accounted for less than a quarter of New York's electricity production.
While there are thousands of residential and commercial solar systems, there is only one utility-
Nyiso's estimate of solar production includes solar photovoltaic power plants of scale. Large-
The scale wind has more success, and the country is also striving for more;
About 30 wind farms are planned to be built in the north.
The state recently approved the country's largest offshore wind farm, which could power 50,000 households in Long Island by the end of 2022.
The second site near the Rockaway Peninsula in Queens is under construction, but it is still a few years away.
The cost of building wind and solar power plants has fallen, but these are intermittent.
Before inserting more storage devices into the grid, such as pumping water into the reservoir to store batteries or pumping power plants for later use, there must be other generators to supplement solar and wind energy.
A standard part of the power arsenal is the generator called "peakers", which is needed to keep the grid reliable, but may only run for a few days a year.
There are about 16 such factories in New York City, mainly near the waterfront, on the hottest day of the year, or if there is a fault in the transmission line or in the north of the power plant, these factories will be put into use immediately.
Some people sit on the barge, all of which are designed to open quickly. The trade-
Rapid response often requires higher costs and carbon emissions.
Therefore, customers pay for factories and wires that are "rarely used in many cases.
Kaufman, energy czar.
The whole system is designed to meet extreme needs and deal with the worst. case situation.
In a $38 million control room near Albany, a team of seven employees of the New York Independent System Operator has been on duty, monitoring power to zoom in through the state grid and out of the neighboring grid. Nyiso (Pronunciation close-so)
It is one of the 36 entities responsible for the Eastern Internet, one of the country's three major power grids extending from the Rocky Mountains to the east coast of the United States and from the province of SA to Nova Scotia, Canada.
Unlike water, electricity cannot be stored in barrels.
When the battery is improving, most of the electricity is used in the moment it is generated.
The team constantly calculates how much power is needed and which plants can produce it at the lowest cost.
Every five minutes, the computer system will instruct the factory to dial or reduce the production scale to ensure that there is enough power supply to keep the lights on without overloading the transmission wires.
If the system is out of balance or the power flow is unstable, it may damage the equipment or cause a power failure.
Operators conduct psychological assessments to ensure they are able to cope with stress, and they prepare for a hurricane or cyber attack every year in a simulation lab. Still, the No.
As Gretchen Barker points out in her book grid: worn wires between Americans and our energy future, the enemy is a branch.
"In 2003, the worst power outage in the United States began with a drooping wire in Ohio, short circuit after hitting a branch.
From New York to Toronto, a series of human error and computer problems plunged about 50 million people into darkness, and the U. S. economy lost about $6 billion.
Jon Sawyer, chief system operator at Nyiso, said that today, the computer system receives about 50,000 data points every six seconds, with the operator at 2,300-square-Video Wall
Mandatory reliability standards have been established for thousands of entities involved in the operation of the country's power systems.
The biggest change every day is the weather.
The storm will drown the equipment, the bright and hot weather will cause the transformer to overheat, the customer will start the airconditioners.
Relying on solar and wind means relying more on the weather, just as weather patterns become unpredictable.
Nyiso has developed sophisticated tools to use climate data to predict how much power each wind farm will generate and find ways to balance the system when the wind suddenly weakens, Mr. Sawyer said.
It is looking at ways to track clouds and other conditions that affect the output of solar panels.
The backbone of the system is 11,124 miles high.
Overhead and underground lines that deliver electricity to local utilities.
Unlike the water pipes, the transmission lines are not hollow and if there is too much power flowing through them they will overheat or close.
Since most of the electricity is generated in areas with a small population, some lines will be shut down during peak demand, which may cause the grid to collapse.
Nearly 60% of New York's electricity consumption is in the New York City area, compared with only 40% of New York's electricity consumption.
"New York is a typical example of congestion," said Bill Booth, senior advisor to the US Energy Information Administration . ".
To overcome the bottleneck, grid operators may drive more expensive or less efficient generators closer to demand.
Think about it, buying a box of milk in bodega next door is more expensive than a supermarket 12 blocks away.
The state is giving priority to projects that bring more power outages from wind farms and hydropower plants.
This demand is even more urgent and it is planned to close the Indian Point after 2021 as it provides about 1-
Power consumption in New York City and Westchester County is the fourth largest.
But it is very unpopular to build new power lines.
Residents do not want high
The voltage lines in the backyard and the local generators don't like to bring in cheaper power from further afield.
Even if these lines are underground, like those that take power from New Jersey to Manhattan through the muck of the Hudson River, it may take years to get federal and state permits.
Since 2008, a project to bring water and electricity from Quebec to Lake Champlain and New York City under Lake Hudson has been underway.
Although enhanced, the transmission grid is still aging.
By 1980, more than 80% of the lines were put into use, and Nyiso estimates nearly 5,000 miles high.
The voltage transmission line will have to be replaced in the next 30 years at a cost of about $25 billion.
The combined Edison system, which originally covered about 1 square mile of lower Manhattan, now extends more than 660 square miles in the city and Westchester.
About 200 networks operate independently, balancing and regulating the flow of electricity in dense areas.
There are 39 networks in Manhattan alone;
For example, Rockefeller Center has its own center.
All in all, there are 129,935 miles of cable winding underground and overhead enough to reach more than half of the moon.
As the largest of the state's six largest power companies, Con Ed spends millions of dollars a year opening utility holes, digging streets full of gas mains, fiber optic
Repair and upgrade its vast underground network of optical cables, steam pipes and subway lines.
Part of the reason is that the electricity bill paid by its customers is the highest in the country.
The operator of the Con Ed energy control center lives in a location that the utility will not disclose, ensuring that enough power flows through its network and can serve more than 9 million people even during the heat wave.
Most of the year, demand peaked at around 5 p. m.
When going home by subway and elevator in the evening, the children open the video game and the family open the refrigerator door to start dinner.
About 3 in summer. m. , when air-
While Con Ed's system is the most reliable in the country, the company cannot prevent squirrels from chewing wires or transformers.
But it is preparing for the disastrous weather.
Since Hurricane Sandy in 2012, utilities have spent about $1 billion to raise funds to waterproof or build walls around equipment at lower altitudes and split the distribution network, in order to close the smaller part remotely when the flood rises.
With the surge in residential and commercial solar installations, customers are now powering the grid.
Robert scheming, who leads the electrical business at Con Ed, said it is developing systems to integrate more and more devices on the other side of the meter, such as fuel cells and batteries, which are sometimes connected in the micro-grid, utilities are out of control.
On July, Con Ed will start installing "smart meters" in enterprises throughout the city, providing customers with detailed consumption summaries at their homes in Staten Island, help operators diagnose problems without dispatching cars.
Help raise $1.
3 billion modernization of the project and distribution network, Con Ed requested an increase in the rate, which was approved by the state in January.
After nearly five
One year freeze, the customer will see a raise of 2. 3 percent to 2.
4% in the next three years
Use 300 KW of typical urban residents
Working hours will increase from $78 per month. 52 to $80. 30.
Instead of moving electricity from a large central power station, where the energy flows only in one direction, about 5% of the energy disappears during transportation (
More during peak hours)
More electricity will be generated and distributed locally.
Just as cloud computing and smartphones have completely changed the way consumers access and store information,
Expanding the generation and storage devices throughout the grid will make the system more efficient and flexible. Kauffman said.
According to Nyiso, while energy use is expected to flatten or decrease over the next decade, in part because of more efficient appliances and better insulated buildings, peak demand will continue to grow. Mr.
Kaufman said that focusing on reducing demand for the system, especially during peak times, is critical to achieving New York's clean energy goals.
The state is using financing and competition as an incentive for the private sector to develop sensors and software to improve transmission efficiency, better use of batteries from renewable sources, or "smart appliances ", "like a washing machine or dishwasher, a cycle is delayed until demand drops, like in the middle of the night.
The core of the reform is to reform the management rules of public utilities. Mr.
Kaufman compared utilities to the hotel industry, which was disturbed by new and expensive Airbnb.
Traditionally, utilities are largely indifferent to how much electricity customers consume.
They get a fixed rate of return (
The infrastructure they build and the cost of upgrading and maintaining the network.
But the state is seeking to create ways to make money for utilities by working with companies and customers to install software solutions that control power use, or adding solar panels in a more economical way, instead of building billions
In the end, consumers will have more choices about where their power is, how it is generated, and how it is consumed.
But as more and more people create their own power, reduce the use of their utilities, due to the structure of electricity prices, A smaller proportion of consumers may end up paying more to build and maintain transmission lines and equipment.
Audrey Zibelman, the outgoing chairman of the New York Public Service Committee, who has set consumption rates, said that moving towards a system to reduce carbon emissions does not necessarily mean higher costs.
"If we do it right, it actually means the price will be lower . "Zibelman said.
The state promises that the poorest New Yorkers will pay no more than 6% of their household income for energy. In addition, the company plans to spend about $1 billion, make solar facilities on roofs and communities more convenient and economical.
New York is learning from California, Germany and other clean energy pioneers.
"Building a clean and resilient modern energy infrastructure is critical to attracting new investments and developing a green economy in New York, while helping us cope with climate change," said Governor Cuomo, keep our air quality and keep our community healthy for generations to come.
While President Trump is skeptical about climate change and supports the coal industry, the state says it will move forward. Mr.
Kaufman said New York is issuing these policies "through its own authority" and is not relying on the federal government to advance our clean energy agenda.
However, he said it would take time to reshape a system that originated more than a century ago.
"This is not switching," he said . "
What is the electricity bill for New Yorkers?
In October, New York State had the seventh
The highest price of electricity for American residents is 18.
28 cents per kilowatt
According to the US Energy Information Administration,
The price in New York City is £ 24.
736 cents per kilowatt
Hours, just below Hawaii, the most expensive in the country (27. 54 cents).
The cheaper ones are Louis Anna (9. 33 cents), Georgia (11. 07 cents)
California (13. 94 cents).
How much do I have to pay every month?
Having a complete understanding of your bill actually requires a PhDD.
But there are three main parts: about three to half of the supply (
Depending on the usage)
Reflects how much electricity your supplier has paid in the wholesale market managed by Nyiso.
Like all goods, prices fluctuate with demand.
Electricity is often cheaper at night and more expensive in summer.
Other factors affect prices such as weather conditions, fuel costs, the cost of operating the plant and where the plant is.
Transmission and delivery you also need to pay for the maintenance and upgrade of the wires and substations.
According to Con Ed, about 30% of the bills are made up of taxes and fees, including property taxes, sales taxes, special taxes on utilities, and funding national clean energy projects and innovations.
The cost of supply and delivery of utilities is determined by the Public Service Board, which is a board appointed by the governor to manage utilities, taking into account the consumer's position, environmental and industrial groups, government agencies and public utilities.
Who will power me?
You may have been approached by a company that wants to sell you energy at a farmer's market or at your doorstep.
About 200 energy services companies (ESCOs) buy electricity in the wholesale market and supply it through local utilities.
In theory, giving consumers the choice can help reduce costs, the state attorney general's office said it received a steady stream of complaints from customers who said they were cheated by companies that offered discount rates ahead of time, just to charge more fees later than consumers pay through their utility companies.
The public service Council has banned several ESCOs from doing business in New York, including some ESCOs with lower targetsincome and non-English-
The agency says it is considering additional measures to regulate the market and protect consumers.
"We don't want people to be hurt because we're just starting to develop consumer knowledge about this," Ms. Zibelman said.
Is there any question about how the city works?
Email newyork101 @ nytimes
Source: Joseph J.
Cunningham, author of New York power;
Electric Power Research Institute;
Suzanne Hunter, president of hengring Co. , Ltd;
April, senior US power analyst LeeS.
Management of energy information;
Committee on the protection of natural resources;
Ben Pickard, head of peak power Co. , Ltd;
Matt Wald, senior communications consultant, Institute of Nuclear Energy.