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How Sodium-Ion Battery position against Lithium Battery?

How Sodium-Ion Battery position against Lithium Battery?



In July 2021, a press conference of CATL pushed the sodium-ion battery technology from behind the scenes to the front stagegrabbing attention in energy storage and investment circles.

Lithium-ion batteries have been popular due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and deep discharge capabilities, making them ideal for various applications. However, as the demand for energy storage soared, lithium-ion battery material prices rose sharply. This led researchers to revisit sodium-ion batteries, with some companies even introducing them to the market for trial use.


Sodium-ion batteries have been under scientific research for years. French scientist Armand first proposed the concept of "rocking chair battery" and began research on both lithium and sodium-ion batteries back in 1979.  But due to the limitations of the research conditions at that time and the strong interest in lithium-ion batteries, the early research of sodium-ion batteries was slow and stagnant.


Why Sodium-Ion Batteries Are Gaining Attention:

1. Environmental Friendliness: Sodium batteries use more eco-friendly materials compared to lead-acid batteries, which contain harmful pollutants like lead. Sodium batteries reduce solid and gas pollution, making them a cleaner and greener option for the environment and human health.


2. Abundant Resources: Sodium reserves are 1400 times more plentiful than lithium, alleviating concerns about resource scarcity. With 70% of the world's lithium resources concentrated in South America and 80% of China's lithium relying on imports, sodium-ion batteries offer a more reliable and sustainable solution.

3. Economical Price: Sodium raw materials come at a lower cost, resulting in sodium-ion batteries being 20% to 40% cheaper than lithium-ion batteries.

Sodium battery VS. Lithium battery:


1. Raw Materials: The manufacturing equipment for both materials is nearly identical. The only difference is changing the raw material used to make the battery. The raw materials invested in the lithium-ion battery cathode material production line are mainly lithium carbonate, nickel oxide, benzoic acid or metal salt plus lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide. The metal salt in the sodium battery remains the same, that is, lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide is replaced by sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide, but the whole synthesis process is the same.


2. Charging Speed: Sodium-ion batteries have higher ionic conductivity due to the smaller Stokes diameter of sodium ions. This enables faster charging, making them competitive in this aspect.


3. Energy Density: Sodium-ion batteries achieve a capacity density of 70-200Wh/Kg, aligning with NCM lithium batteries' energy density range of 240-350Wh/Kg. Some sodium-ion batteries even rival high-energy lithium iron phosphate batteries.


4. Cycle Life: Sodium-ion batteries boast a theoretical cycle number of up to 10,000, while current models reach around 2,000-3,000 cycles. Most lithium-ion batteries available on the market offer 6,000-8,000 cycles.

Potential Applications of Sodium-Ion Batteries:


1. Two-Wheeler Batteries: Sodium-ion batteries may be an excellent choice for short- and medium-distance two-wheeler travel, particularly for price-sensitive consumers. In terms of price, sodium-ion batteries have a great advantage. In terms of performance, currently electric vehicles mainly use lead-acid batteries with an energy density of 50wh/Kg, while sodium-ion batteries have an energy density of up to 150wh/Kg.


2. Cold Area Use: Sodium-ion batteries can operate in a broader temperature range (-40°C to 50°C) compared to lithium-ion batteries (-20°C to 60°C), have a wider temperature range.


As demand for sustainable energy storage solutions rises, sodium-ion batteries have emerged as a competitive contender to lithium-ion technology. With their abundance, affordability, and eco-friendliness, sodium-ion batteries hold promise in shaping our greener future.


MeritSun Power Limited

MeritSun was founded in 1999, we have 24 years of professional experience in energy and integrated solution services. We have 100+R&D teams,1368 employees,48 fully automatic production lines, and a 150,000 square meters factory, become the industry pioneers in battery suppliers through effective management.

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